Linked PDF’s are intended for personal, noncommercial use only, copyright resides with copyright holders as stated in each paper. These files may not be reposted without permission.

Link not working? Let me know: email r.s.schaefer ‘at’ fsw.leidenuniv.nl

Journal Publications
• Moore, E.V., Schaefer, R.S., Bastin, M., Roberts, N. & Overy, K. (2017). Diffusion tensor MRI tractography reveals increased fractional anisotropy (FA) in arcuate fasciculus following music-cued motor training. Brain and Cognition 116, 40-46. <pdf>
• Schaefer, R.S., Beijer, L. J., Seuskens, W., Rietveld, T. C., and Sadakata, M. (2016). Intuitive visualization of pitch and loudness in speech. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 23(2), 548-555. <pdf>
• Davidson Kelly, K., Schaefer, R.S., Moran, N. & Overy, K. (2015). “Total Inner Memory”: Deliberate uses of multimodal musical imagery during performance preparation. Psychomusicology: Music, Mind & Brain 25(1), 83-92. <pdf>
• Schaefer, R.S. & Overy, K. (2015). Motor responses to a steady beat. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1337, 40-44.<pdf>
• Schaefer, R.S. (2014). Mental representations in musical processing and their role in action-perception loops. Empirical Musicology Review, 9(3-4), 161-176 <pdf>
• Schaefer, R.S. (2014). Auditory rhythmic cueing in movement rehabilitation: findings and possible mechanisms. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 369: 20130402.
Schaefer, R.S., Morcom, A.M., Roberts, N. & Overy, K. (2014). Moving to music: Effects of heard and imagined musical cues on movement-related brain activity. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8:774. <pdf>
• Schaefer, R.S. (2014). Images of time: Temporal aspects of auditory and movement imagination. Frontiers in Psychology: Perception Science 5:877 <pdf>
• Moore, E.V., Schaefer, R.S., Bastin, M., Roberts, N. & Overy, K. (2014). Can musical training influence brain connectivity? Evidence from diffusion tensor MRI. Brain Sciences, 4, 405-427 <pdf>
Schaefer, R.S., Overy, K. & Nelson, P. (2013). Affect and non-uniform characteristics of predictive processing in musical behaviour. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36(3), 226-227 (commentary on Clark, A. (2013). Whatever next? Predictive brains, situated agents, and the future of cognitive science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36(3), 181-204) <pdf>
Schaefer, R.S., Desain, P. & Farquhar, J. (2013). Shared processing of perception and imagery of music in decomposed EEG.  NeuroImage, 70, 317-326. <pdf>
Schaefer, R.S., Furuya, S., Smith, L. M., Bohannan Kaneshiro, B. & Toiviainen, P. (2012). Probing neural mechanisms of music perception, cognition and performance using multivariate decoding. Psychomusicology: Music, Mind and Brain 22(2), 168-174 <pdf>
Schaefer, R.S., Vlek, R.J. & Desain, P. (2011). Music perception and imagery in EEG: alpha band effects of task and stimulus. International Journal for Psychophysiology, 82(3), 254-259 <pdf>
• Vlek, R.J., Schaefer, R.S., Gielen, C.C.A.M., Farquhar, J.D. & Desain, P. (2011). Shared mechanisms in perception and imagery of auditory accents. Clinical Neurophysiology, 122(8):1526–1532 <pdf>
Schaefer, R.S., Sadakata, M., Blokland, Y., Farquhar, J., & Desain, P. (2011). Name that tune: decoding music from the listening brain. NeuroImage, 56, 843 – 849 <pdf>
Schaefer, R.S., Vlek, R.J. & Desain, P. (2011). Decomposing rhythm processing: electroencephalography of perceived and self-imposed rhythmic patterns. Psychological Research, 75(2), 95 – 106 <pdf>
• Vlek, R.J., Schaefer, R.S., Gielen, C.C.A.M., Farquhar, J.D. & Desain, P. (2011). Sequenced subjective accents for Brain-Computer Interfaces. Journal of Neural Engineering, 8(3): 036002 <pdf>, selected to be a part of JNE’s Highlights collection for 2011!
Schaefer, R.S., Desain, P. & Suppes, P. (2009). Structural decomposition of EEG signatures of melodic processing. Biological Psychology 82, 253-259 <pdf>
• Van Gerven, M., Farquhar, J., Schaefer, R., Vlek, R., Geuze, J., Nijholt, A., Ramsey, N., Haselager, P., Vuurpijl, L., Gielen, S. & Desain, P. (2009). The brain-computer interface cycle. Journal of Neural Engineering 6(4): 041001 <pdf>
(No. 2 most cited paper in JNE of 2009-2010! <see list> )
• De Kruif, B.J., Schaefer, R.S. & Desain, P. (2007). Classification of imagined beats for use in a Brain Computer Interface. Proceedings of the 29th Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBS (pp. 678-681). Cite Internationale, Lyon, France. <pdf>

Book chapters
Schaefer, R.S.
& Grafton, S. T (2017). Modifying movement optimization processes with music.  In: LeSaffre, M., Maes, P.-J. & Leman, M. (Eds), The Routledge Companion to Embodied Music Interaction. Taylor & Francis.
Schaefer, R.S. (2017). Music in the brain: Imagery and memory. In: Ashley, R. & Timmers, R. (Eds), The Routledge Companion to Music Cognition. Taylor & Francis.
•De Bruin, J.J. & Schaefer, R.S. (2017). Musical activities for cognitive enhancement in dementia.  In: Colzato, L.S. (Ed.), Handbook of Cognitive Enhancement. Springer.

Conference presentations
talks
Schaefer, R.S. & Hamilton, A.S.A. (2018). Music-supported motor learning: Beahvioral learning and cue dependence. Proceedings of the 15th International Conference for Music Perception and Cognition, July 2018, Graz, Austria
Schaefer, R.S. (2017). Cognitive effects of music listening in healthy elderly: Considering arousal and familiarity. Federation for European Societies of Neuropsychology, September 2017, Maastricht, NL
Schaefer, R.S. (2017). Reconsidering cognitive effects of music listening: Evaluating the Arousal-Mood Hypothesis over the life span. European Society for Cognition of Music, July 2017, Ghent, BE
• Van Egmond, E. & Schaefer, R.S. (2017). Cognitive aspects of cued movement precision. European Society for Cognition of Music, July 2017, Ghent, BE (supported by SEMPRE and LUF funds)
• Van Ditzhuizen J. & Schaefer, R.S. (2017). The effect of music listening on the cognitive performance of older adults: Does familiarity matter? European Society for Cognition of Music, July 2017, Ghent, BE (supported by SEMPRE funds)
• Moore, E.V., Schaefer, R.S., Bastin, M., Roberts, N. & Overy, K. (2015). Musically cued motor training induces structural change in the Arcuate Fasciculus. ESMRMB 2015, Edinburgh, UK
• Schaefer, R.S., Morcom, A.M., Roberts, N. & Overy, K. (2014). fMRI of cued movement. In: Song, M.K. (Ed)., Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Music Perception & Cognition, Seoul, South Korea (supported by the Marie Curie Alumni Association)
Schaefer, R.S., Farquhar, J., & Desain, P. (2012). Common components in perception and imagery of music: an EEG study. In: Cambouropoulos, E., Tsougras, C., Mavromatis, P. & Pastiades, K (Eds.), Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Music Perception & Cognition (p 885), Thessaloniki, Greece
• Vlek, R.J., Schaefer, R.S., Farquhar, J. & Desain, P. (2012). Exploring the mechanisms of subjective accenting through multivariate decoding.n: Cambouropoulos, E., Tsougras, C., Mavromatis, P. & Pastiades, K (Eds.), Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Music Perception & Cognition, Thessaloniki, Greece
Schaefer, R.S., Vlek, R.J. & Desain, P (2010). Rhythm processing decomposed: EEG of perceived and self-imposed rhythmic patterns. Society for Neuroscience Meeting in San Diego, USA.
Schaefer, R.S., Perreau Guimaraes, M., Desain, P. & Suppes, P. (2008). Detecting imagined music from EEG. In: K. Miyazaki, Y. Hiraga, Adachi, M. Nakajima, Y. & Tsuzaki, M. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Music Perception and Cognition, Sapporo, Japan
• Desain, P., Farquhar, J., Haselager, P., Hesse, C. & Schaefer, R.S. (2008). What BCI research needs. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Venice, Italy. <pdf>
Schaefer, R.S., de Kruif, B.J. & Desain, P. (2007). Using EEG signatures of subjective rhythmisation for BCI. Conference for Applied Neuroscience, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
Schaefer, R.S. & Desain, P. (2007). EEG signatures of subjective rhythmisation and applications to Brain-Computer Interfacing. Proceedings of the 7th Rhythm Perception and Production Workshop, Dublin, Ireland.
• Desain, P., Schaefer, R.S. & van Drumpt, J. (2006). Detecting subjective rhythmic attending in ERP. In: M. Baroni, A.R. Addessi, R. Caterina & Costa, M. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Music Perception & Cognition, Bologna, Italy. Bologna University Press.
Schaefer, R.S. & Desain, P. (2006). Detecting dynamic attending: An ERP investigation. Proceedings of the Joint Meeting of the Experimental Psychology Society (EPS) and Nederlandse Vereniging voor Psychonomie (NVP), Birmingham, UK.
Schaefer, R.S. & Desain, P. (2006). Probing the representation of melody, an ERP study. In: M. Baroni, A.R. Addessi, R. Caterina & Costa, M. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Music Perception & Cognition, Bologna, Italy. Bologna University Press.
Schaefer, R.S., Murre, J.M.J. & Bod, R. (2004). Limits to universality in segmentation of simple melodies. In: S.D. Lipscomb, R. Ashley, R.O. Gjerdingen, & P. Webster (Eds.), Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Music Perception & Cognition, Evanston, USA. Adelaide: Causal Productions.

posters
Korsmit, I.R., Stevers, D., Roché, M. & Schaefer, R.S. (2018). Complexity in musical rhythms: beat content, liking, and urge to move. Proceedings of the 15th International Conference for Music Perception and Cognition, July 2018, Graz, Austria
• Floridou, G.A., Den Hartog, A., Coers, M. & Schaefer, R.S. (2018). Neural correlates of movement cued with heard and imagined music. Proceedings of the 15th International Conference for Music Perception and Cognition, July 2018, Graz, Austria
• Gosman, M., Demirel, M., Kal, E., Geerse, D., van der Kamp, J. & Schaefer, R.S. (2017) Cognitive aspects of explicit and metaphorical movement instruction in older adults. Federation for European Societies of Neuropsychology, September 2017, Maastricht, NL
• Coers, M., Myles, D. & Schaefer, R.S. (2017). Musical EMDR: Music, arousal and emotional processing in EEG. Federation for European Societies of Neuropsychology, September 2017, Maastricht, NL
• 
Floridou, G.A., Peerdeman, K.J. & Schaefer, R.S. (2017). Spontaneous and voluntary imagery across the life span. European Society for Cognition of Music, July 2017, Ghent, BE
• Coers, M., Myles, D., De Bruin, J. & Schaefer, R.S. (2016). Musical EMDR: Music, arousal and emotional processing in EEG. Proceedings of the 14th International Conference for Music Perception and Cognition, San Francisco, July 2016
• Overboom, T., Verheijen, J., De Bruin, J. & Schaefer, R.S. (2016). Music liking, arousal and cognition. Proceedings of the 14th International Conference for Music Perception and Cognition, San Francisco, July 2016 (supported by SEMPRE funds)
• Pietroniro, J., De Bruin, J. & Schaefer, R.S. (2016). Metaphor use in skilled movement: Music performance, dance and athletics. Proceedings of the 14th International Conference for Music Perception and Cognition, San Francisco, July 2016
• Schaefer, R.S., Morcom, A.M., Roberts, N. & Overy, K. (2015). fMRI measures of moving to auditory rhythm. ESMRMB 2015, Edinburgh, UK.
• Schaefer, R.S., Broadway, J., Garcia, J., Schooler J., & Protzko, J. (2015). Latent cognitive correlates of timing abilities. International Society for Intelligence Research Annual Conference, Albuquerque, NM.
• Tarampi, M, Khanukayev, B. & Schaefer, R.S. (2015). Imagine That: The relationship between imagery measures and imagery types. Annual meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (CogSci) 2015, UC Merced.
• Moore, E.V., Schaefer, R.S., Bastin, M., Roberts, N. & Overy, K. (2015). Four weeks of musically-cued motor training induces structural changes in the arcuate fasciculus. British Neuroscience Association’s Festival of Neuroscience 2015, Edinburgh, UK
• Schaefer, R.S., Morcom, A.M., Roberts, N. & Overy, K. (2014). Motor network effects of movement cueing. NeuroMusic V, Dijon, France.
• Schaefer, R.S., Beijer, L.J., Seuskens, W., Rietveld, A.C.M. & Sadakata, M. (2014). Visual feedback in speech therapy for Parkinson’s Disease: Dissociations of pitch and loudness perception. NeuroMusic V, Dijon, France.
• Moore, E.V., Schaefer, R.S., Bastin, M., Murnane, J., Yin, K., Roberts, N. & Overy, K. (2013). Music Moves: The effects of musical and visual cueing on finger movement training. Center for In Vivo Imaging Annual Meeting 2013, Edinburgh, UK
• Schaefer, R.S., Desain, P. & Farquhar, J. (2013). Tensor decomposition on EEG of music imagination. International BCI Meeting 2013, Asilomar, CA, USA
• Davidson Kelly, K., Hong, S., Schaefer, R.S., van Beek, E.J., Roberts, N. & Overy, K. (2013). Markers of musical imagery: an fMRI study of expert pianists. Neuroscience Day 2013, Edinburgh, UK
Schaefer, R.S., Vlek, R.J., & Desain, P. (2011). Music perception and imagery in EEG: posterior alpha modulation by task and stimulus. Neuromusic Conference, Edinburgh, UK
Schaefer, R.S., Sadakata, M., Farquhar, J., & Desain, P. (2010). Name that tune: What is your brain listening to? In: Demorest, S.M.,  Morrison, S.J. & Campbell, P.S. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Music Perception and Cognition, Seattle, USA.
• Vlek, R.J., Schaefer, R.S., Farquhar, J., & Desain, P. (2010). Subjective rhythmization as a paradigm for BCI. BCI meeting 2010, Monterey, USA. (won poster prize for most innovative BCI design)
Schaefer, R.S., Blokland, Y., Farquhar, J. & Desain, P. (2009). Single trial classification of perceived and imagined music from EEG. Berlin BCI Work- shop, Berlin, Germany.
• Vlek, R.J., Schaefer, R.S., Gielen, C.C.A.M., Farquhar, J., & Desain, P. (2009). Subjective rhythmization as a paradigm for BCI. Berlin BCI Workshop, Berlin, Germany.
Schaefer, R.S. & Desain, P. (2008). Decomposing melodies in EEG. Neuromusic Conference, Montreal, Canada.
Schaefer, R.S., Vlek, R.J. & Desain, P. (2008). Subjective rhythmisation as a paradigm for an EEG-driven BCI. Cognitive Neuroscience Society Meeting in San Francisco, USA.
• Desain, P., Hupse, R., Kallenberg, M.G.J., de Kruif, B.J. & Schaefer, R.S. (2006). Brain-Computer Interfacing using selective attention and frequency-tagged stimuli. Proceedings of the 3rd International BCI Workshop and Training Course 2006, Graz, Austria.
Schaefer, R.S. & Lamont, A.M. (2004). Heightened arousal and perceived activity level in music. In: S.D. Lipscomb, R. Ashley, R.O. Gjerdingen, & P. Webster (Eds.), Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Music Perception & Cognition, Evanston, USA. Adelaide: Causal Productions.

Symposia
• SAGE JRF workshop 2014: Coordinating research on coordination, Multidisciplinary methods for research on social coordination (co-organized with Matthew Gervais, Corina Logan and Margaret Tarampi)
• Symposium at the International Conference on Music Perception & Cognition (ICMPC13), Seoul, South Korea, 2014: Musical movement: effects of cueing and feedback
• Symposium at the International Conference on Music Perception & Cognition (ICMPC12), Thessaloniki, Greece2012: Classification as a tool in probing neural mechanisms of music perception, cognition, and performance (co-organized with Shinichi Furuya)

Selected general public lectures and media appearances
• Interview after shortlisting for Dutch Applied Research Foundation prize for best applied PhD research project of 2011 (In Dutch)
• Edinburgh Youth Music forum: State of the field: Music and Movement, Clinical Uses. February 2012
• General public science video on music brainreading (NeuroImage paper), May 2010 <link>
• Geheugen voor muziek: een speciaal geval? Symposium Kon. Ver. Muziekwetenschap ‘Muziek en herinnering’, November 2007
• Interview ‘Bright’ magazine on Brain-Computer Interfaces, August 2007 <pdf>
• Interview ‘Financieele Dagblad’ on Brain-Computer Interfaces November 2006 <pdf>
• Muziek en emotie, with Dr. Renee Timmers, special seminar Groningen Conservatory, May 2006
• Introductie in de muziekcognitie. Studentendag Zevende-dags Adventisten, March 2006

PhD Thesis
Schaefer, R.S.  (2011). Measuring the mind’s ear: EEG of music imagery. Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. <full pdf, 12MB>